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The most traditional X-shaped ornament of the "Ganja" carpet




Complex ornaments of "Farahli" carpet



The "Ganja" carpets from the group of the Ganja-Kazakh carpet type, used to be produced not only in the city, but also in carpet making settlements of Garabaghli, Borsunly, Shadylli and others. Carpets that have the middle field with the diagonal lines were made exclusively in the city of Ganja. In other Ganja carpets the middle field has several "gols" (shields), which in most cases present the X-shaped or eight-coal design.

The Ganja region was one of the most ancient carpet centers of Azerbaijan. On this territory were produced and developed also Shirvan, Garabagh, Gobustan, Kazak carpets and even "Anadolu"carpets of the Eastern Turkey. The small lengthened carpets and Gaba (oblong nap carpets, rough in comparison with non pile carpets) are typical for carpets of the Ganja group.

Composition of the middle field of the Gadim Ganja carpets consists of a plenty of buta, lined in order. Serial buta are considered independent and basic elements of the design. In this carpet horizontal and vertical rows consist only of numerous buta all of a similar form. They create simple, compact and at the same time original grid Shabaka. Sometimes buta are woven aligned by diagonals, that is also typical for this group of carpets.

Strong geometric lines of "Shadilli" carpet

The carpets "Samukh" also enter this group of carpets. Two basic elements of this carpet are "val" - a threshing board and "goosh" - a bird. It is necessary to note that image of "val" has appeared in carpet because this region was engaged with agriculture. In the center of the middle field the square shaped bordered gol (shield) is placed. In upper and the bottom sides of the gol there are placed other gols of the mean size. The filling elements of the round shape, typical for Ganja and Garabagh carpets are placed around the gols. The "Fahrali" carpet has received its name from the village located in 25 km at the North–East of Ganja. In the Fahrali village starting from the second half of the XVIII century the weaving of Namazligh carpets has begun. Popularity of these carpets gradually grew, so the quantity of places manufacturing them also increased. Therefore some historians gave various names to this carpets - "Ganja", "Shamkhor" etc., considering a place of basic production of these carpets.

These carpets were usually used during religious ceremonies, mainly during the time of namaz (a prayer); therefore they are also known as "Chaynamaz" or "Jeynaman", that means "Place for Namaz". This carpet’s mid field composition happens to be both simple and complex. Simple composition is made by the large gol of the rectangular shape, while complex is made by the square or eight-coal gel in the midfield. The basic patterns of the simple composition carpets are "sallama" (a tearing willow) and "agaj" (a tree). The complex patterns are: "karpij" (a brick); big or small "Gadabay" (western district); four triangular mangals in upper and lower ends of the central gol; "sirga" (earring}, located on the central axis of the upper end of the mid field, "tughbashi" to the left and to the right from the "gendila" (candlestick).

Large ornamental elements are traditionally typical for the "Gadim Ganja" type of carpets

The "Gadabay" carpets are made in the Gadabay region, located in 50km, to the west of Ganja. From ancient times up to the past recent Gadabay was very large center of the Ganja group carpets' manufacturing. The natural environments here were very suitable for pastures, in foothills, abundance are favorable for cultivation springs. It caused development of the carpet production. Located upfront dark blue gols in the shape of kataba (composition, used in the architecture and also in the products of the decorative arts) and yellow rectangular elements, located between the gols, are the basic elements of the "Gadabay" carpets. There can also be met "Gadabay" carpets with the midfield divided into rectangulars or squares.